Dictionary: BORN – BO'SOM

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BORN, pp. [of Bear. baurn.]

  1. Brought forth, as an animal. A very useful distinction is observed by good authors, who, in the sense of produced or brought forth, write this word born; but in the sense of carried, write it börne. This difference of orthography renders obvious the difference of pronunciation.
  2. To be born, is to be produced or brought into life. “Man is born to trouble.” A man born a prince or a beggar. It is followed by of, before the mother or ancestors. Man that is born of woman is of few days and full of trouble. – Job xiv.
  3. To be born, or born again, is to be regenerated and renewed; to receive spiritual life. – John iii.


The more correct orthography of bourn, a limit or boundary. [See Bourn.]

BORNE, pp. [of Bear.]

Carried; conveyed; supported; defrayed.

BO'RON, n.

The elementary base of boracic acid. – Parke.

BOR'OUGH, n.1 [bur'ro; Goth. bairgs; Sax. burg, burh, beorh, beorg, byrig; Ir. brog; Fr. bourg; It. borgo; Sp. burgo; D. burg and berg; Dan. borg; Arm. bourg; G. burg and berg; Gr. πυργος; Ar. بُرْجٌ borachon; Sans. bura. This word, in Saxon, is interpreted a hill, heap, mountain, fortification, castle, tower, city, house and tomb. Hence Perga, in Pamphylia, Bergen, in Norway, Burgos, in Spain, and probably Prague, in Bohemia. In W. bwr, bwrc, signifies a wall, rampart, or work for defense, and bwrdais is a burgess. But the original sense probably is found in the verb Sax. beorgan, D. and G. bergen, Russ. beregu, to keep, or save, that is, to make close or secure. Hence it coincides with park, and L. parcus, saving. See the next word. If the noun is the primary word, denoting hill, this is from throwing together, collecting; a sense allied to that of making fast or close.]

Originally, a fortified city or town; hence a hill, for hills were selected for places of defense. But in later times the term city was substituted to denote an episcopal town, in which was the see of a bishop, and that of borough was retained for the rest. At present, the name is given appropriately to such towns and villages as send representatives or burgesses to Parliament. Some boroughs are incorporated, others are not. – Blackstone. Encyc.

BOR'OUGH, n.2 [bur'ro; Sax. borhoe, a surety; borgian, to borrow; borg, interest; borga, a debtor, a surety; borgwed, a promise or bond for appearance, a pledge; borg-bryce, burg-break, violation of pledge; borghand, borhhand, a surety or bail; beorgan, to keep, guard or preserve; G. and D. borgen, to borrow. See the preceding word.]

In Saxon times, a main pledge, or association of men, who were sureties or free pledges to the king for the good behavior of each other, and if any offense was committed in their district, they were bound to have the offender forthcoming. The association of ten men was called a tithing, or decenary; the presiding man was called the tithing-man, or head-borough; or in some places, borsholder, borough's elder. This society was called also friburg, free burg, frank pledge. Ten tithings formed a hundred, consisting of that number of sureties, and this denomination is still given to the districts comprehended in the association. The term seems to have been used both for the society and for each surety. The word main, hand, which is attached to this society, or their mutual assurance, indicates that the agreement was ratified by shaking hands. Spelman. Blackstone. Cowel. Some writers have suggested that the application of this word to towns sprung from these associations, and of course was posterior to them in time. [See Encyc. Art. Borough.] But the word was used for a town or castle in other nations, and in Asia, doubtless long before the origin of the frank pledge. In Connecticut, this word, borough, is used for a town or a part of a town, or a village, incorporated with certain privileges, distinct from those of other towns and of cities. In Scotland, a borough is a body corporate, consisting of the inhabitants of a certain district, erected by the sovereign, with a certain jurisdiction. Boroughs are erected to be held of the sovereign, as is generally the case of royal boroughs; or of the superior of the lands included, as in the case of boroughs of regality and a barony. Royal boroughs are generally erected for the advantage of trade. – Encyc. Borough English, is a customary descent of lands and tenements to the youngest son, instead of the eldest; or if the owner leaves no son, to the youngest brother. – Blackstone. Cowel. Borough-head, the same as head-borough, the chief of a borough. – Ash.


A head-borough; a borsholder. – Ash.


The mayor, governor or bailif of a borough. – Ash.


The caoutchouc, India rubber, or elastic gum. [See Caoutchouc.]


Rustic, rude. – Spenser.


In Church history, a sect of Christians in Holland, so called from Borrel, their founder, who reject the use of the sacraments, public prayer, and all external worship. They lead a very austere life. – Encyc.


A borrowing; the act of borrowing. [Not used.] But of your royal presence I'll adventure / The borrow of a week. – Shak.

BOR'ROW, v.t. [Sax. borgian, to borrow; D. borgen, to borrow, lend or trust; Ger. borgen, the same; Dan. borger, to borrow; borgen, bail, surety, pledge, warranter, main-pernor; borg, trust, credit; Sw. borgan, a giving bail; borg, a fortress. The primary sense is, to make fast or secure.]

  1. To take from another by request and consent, with a view to use the thing taken for a time, and return it, or if the thing taken is to be consumed or transferred in the use, then to return an equivalent in kind; as, to borrow a book, a sum of money or a loaf of bread. It is opposed to lend.
  2. To take from another, for one's own use; to copy or select from the writings of another author; as, to borrow a passage from a printed book; to borrow a title.
  3. To take or adopt for one's own use, sentiments, principles, doctrines and the like; as, to borrow instruction.
  4. To take for use something that belongs to another; to assume, copy or imitate; as, to borrow a shape; to borrow the manners of another, or his style of writing.


Taken by consent of another, to be returned or its equivalent in kind; copied; assumed.


  1. One who borrows; opposed to lender. [See the verb.]
  2. One who takes what belongs to another to use as one's own.


The act of borrowing. [See the verb.]


Taking by consent to use and return, or to return its equivalent; taking what belongs to another to use as one's own; copying; assuming; imitating.

BORS'HOLD-ER, n. [A contraction of buhr's ealdor, borough's elder, the elder or chief of a borough.]

The head or chief of a tithing or burg of ten men; the head-borough. – Lambert. Spelman.

BOS, n. [L.]

  1. In zoology, the technical name of a genus of quadrupeds. The characters are, the horns are hollow within and turned outward in the form of crescents; there are eight fore teeth in the under jaw, but none in the upper; there are no dog teeth. The species are, the Taurus or common ox, the Urus, aurochs or bison of Europe, the Bison or buffalo of North America, the Bubalus or proper buffalo of the Eastern continent, the Caffer, or Cape buffalo, the Grunniens or yak of Thibet, and the Moschatus or musk ox of Arctic America. – Encyc. Cuvier.
  2. A master mechanic. – N. York.

BOSC'AGE, n. [Fr. boscage, now bocage, a grove; It. bosco; Dan. busk; Ger. busch, a wood, or properly a thicket or underwood; Eng. bush.]

  1. Wood; understood; perhaps, sometimes, lands covered with underwood; also a thicket.
  2. In old laws, food or sustenance for cattle, which is yielded by bushes and trees. – Cowel.
  3. With painters, a landscape, representing thickets of wood. – Encyc.


The common wild duck, or mallard, belonging to the genus Anas. – Encyc.

BOSH, n.

Outline; figure. – Chalmers.

BOSK'ET, or BOS'QUET, n. [or BUSK'ET. It. boschetto, a little wood, from bosco. See Boscage.]

In gardening, a grove; a compartment formed by branches of trees, regularly or irregularly disposed, according to fancy. – Encyc.

BOSK'Y, a. [See Boscage.]

Woody; covered with thickets. – Milton.

BO'SOM, n. [s as z. Sax. bosm, bosum; D. boezem; G. busen. Qu. Ch. ביזה or בוזא, the breast, uber, mamma.]

  1. The breast of a human being and the parts adjacent.
  2. The folds or covering of clothes about the breast. Put thy hand in thy bosom. – Ex. iv.
  3. Embrace, as with the arm; inclosure; compass; often implying friendship or affection; as, to live in the bosom of a church.
  4. The breast, as inclosing the heart; or the interior of the breast, considered as the seat of the passions. Anger resteth in the bosom of fools. – Eccles. vii. Their soul was poured into their mother's bosom. – Lam. ii.
  5. The breast, or its interior, considered as a close place, the, receptacle of secrets. If I covered my transgressions as Adam, by hiding my iniquity in my bosom. – Job xxxi.
  6. Any inclosed place; the interior; as the bosom of the earth or of the deep.
  7. The tender affections; kindness; favor; as, the son of his bosom; the wife of thy bosom. He shall carry the lambs in his bosom. – Isa. xl.
  8. The arms, or embrace of the arms. – Ps. cxxix.
  9. Inclination; desire. [Not used.] – Shak. Bosom, in composition, implies intimacy, affection and confidence; as a bosom-friend, an intimate or confidential friend; bosom-lover, bosom-interest, bosom-secret, &c. In such phrases, bosom may be considered as an attribute equivalent to intimate, confidential, dear.