Dictionary: TUR'GID-NESS – TUR'NEP

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  1. A swelling or swelled state of a thing; distention beyond its natural state by some internal force or agent, as in a limb.
  2. Pompousness; inflated manner of writing or speaking; bombast; as, the turgidness of language or style.

TU-RI-O-NIF'ER-OUS, a. [L. turio, a shoot, and fero, to bear.]

Producing shoots. Barton.

TUR'KEY, or TUR'KY, n. [As this fowl was not brought from Turkey, it would be more correct to write the name turky, as it is written in the Encyclopedia Britannica.]

A large gallinaceous fowl, the Meleagris gallopavo. It is a native of America, and its flesh furnishes most delicious food. Wild turkies abound in the forests of America, and domestic turkies are bred in other countries, as well as in America. There is another species, the Meleagris ocellata, found about the Bay of Honduras.


In America, a common species of vultur, having distant resemblance to a turkey, and remarkable for its graceful flight in the higher regions of the air. It is the Cathartes aura. Haldeman.


Another name of the oil-stone, from Turkey.


Pertaining to the Turks.


In the manner of the Turks.

TURK'OIS, n. [Fr. turquoise; from Turkey.]

A mineral, called also calaite, brought from the east; of a beautiful light green color, occurring in thin layers, or in rounded masses, or in reniform masses, with a botryoidal surface. It is susceptible of a high polish, and is used in jewelry. It is usually written in the French manner.


A plant of the genus Lilium; and also of the genus Melocactus.


Plants of the genera Mammillaria and Melocactus.


A plant of the genus Ranunculus.

TURM, n. [L. turma.]

A troop. [Not English.] Milton.


An electric stone. [See Tourmalin.]

TUR'MER-IC, n. [It. turtumaglio. Thomson says, Sans. and Pers. zur, yellow, and mirich, pepper.]

A medicinal root brought from the East Indies, the Curcuma longa. It is externally grayish, but internally of a deep lively yellow or saffron color. It has a slight aromatic smell, and a bitterish, slightly acrid taste. It is used for dyeing, and as a medicine. This name is sometimes given to the blood-root (Sanguinaria Canadensis) of America, and also to the Hydrastis Canadensis. Cyc. Bigelow.

TUR-MOIL', n. [I know not the origin of this word; but it is probably from the root of the L. turba, turbo, turma, or of turba.]

Disturbance; tumult; harassing labor; trouble; molestation by tumult. There I'll rest, as after much turmoil / A blessed soul doth in Elysium. Shak.

TUR-MOIL', v.i.

To be disquieted; to be in commotion. Milton.

TUR-MOIL', v.t.

  1. To harass with commotion. It is her fatal misfortune – to be miserably tossed and turmoiled with these storms of affliction. Spenser.
  2. To disquiet; to weary.


Harassed with commotions.

TURN, n.

  1. The act of turning; movement or motion in a circular direction; whether horizontally, vertically or otherwise; a revolution; as, the turn of a wheel.
  2. A winding; a meandering course; a bend or bending; as, the turn of a river. Addison.
  3. A walk to and fro. I will take a turn in your garden. Dryden.
  4. Change; alteration; vicissitude; as, the turns and varieties of passions. Hooker. Too well the turns of mortal chance I know. Pope.
  5. Successive course. Nobleness and bounty – which virtues laid their tarns in the king's nature. Bacon.
  6. Manner of proceeding; change of direction. This affair may take a different turn from that which we expect.
  7. Chance; hap; opportunity. Every one has a fair turn to be as great as he pleases. Collier.
  8. Occasion; incidental opportunity. An old dog falling from his speed, was loaded at every turn with blows and reproaches. L'Estrange.
  9. Time at which, by successive vicissitudes, any thing is to be had or done. They take each other's turn. His turn will come to laugh at you again. Denham.
  10. Action of kindness or malice. Thanks are half lost when good turns are delay'd. Fairfax. Some malicious natures place their delight in doing ill turns. L'Estrange.
  11. Reigning inclination or course. Religion is not to be adapted to the turn and fashion of the age.
  12. A step off the ladder at the gallows. Butler.
  13. Convenience; occasion; purpose; exigence; as, this will not serve his turn. Clarendon. Temple.
  14. Form; cast; shape; manner; in a literal or figurative sense; as, the turn of thought; a man of a sprightly turn in conversation. The turn of his thoughts and expression is unharmonious. Dryden. Female virtues are of a domestic turn. Addison. The Roman poets, in their description of a beautiful man, often mention the turn of his neck and arms. Addison.
  15. Manner of arranging words in a sentence.
  16. Change; new disposition of things. Some evil happens at every turn of affairs.
  17. Change of direction; as, the turn of the tide from flood to ebb.
  18. One round of a rope or cord.
  19. In mining, a pit sunk in some part of a drift. Cyc.
  20. Turn or tourn, in law. The sherif's turn is a court of record, held by the sherif twice a year in every hundred within his county. [England.] By turns, one after another; alternately. They assist each other by turns. #2. At intervals. They feel by turns the bitter change. Milton. To take turns, to take each other's place alternately.

TURN, v.i.

  1. To move round; to have a circular motion; as, a wheel turns on its axis; a spindle turns on a pivot; a man turns on his heel.
  2. To be directed. The understanding turns inward on itself, and reflects on its own operations. Locke.
  3. To show regard by directing the look toward any thing. Turn mighty monarch, turn this way / Do not refuse to hear. Dryden.
  4. To move the body round. He turned to me with a smile.
  5. To move; to change posture. Let your body be at rest; do not turn in the least.
  6. To deviate; as, to turn from the road or course.
  7. To alter; to be changed or transformed; as, wood turns to stone; water turns to ice; one color turns to another.
  8. To become by change; as, the fur of certain animals turns in winter. Cygnets from gray turn white. Bacon.
  9. To change sides. A man in a fever turns often. Swift.
  10. To change opinions or parties; as, to turn Christian or Mohammedan.
  11. To change the mind or conduct. Turn from thy fierce wrath. Exod. xxxii.
  12. To change to acid; as, milk turns suddenly during a thunder storm.
  13. To be brought eventually; to result or terminate in. This trade has not turned to much account or advantage. The application of steam turns to good account, both on land and water.
  14. To depend on for decision. The question turns on a single fact or point.
  15. To become giddy. I'll look no more, / Lest my brain turn. Shak.
  16. To change a course of life; to repent. Turn ye, turn ye from your evil ways, for why will ye die? Ezek. xxxiii.
  17. To change the course or direction; as, the tide turns. To turn about, to move the face to another quarter. To turn away, to deviate. #2. To depart from; to forsake. To turn in, to bend inward. #2. To enter for lodgings or entertainment. Gen. xix. #3. To go to bed. To turn off, to be diverted; to deviate from a course. The road turns off to the left. To turn on or upon, to reply or retort. #2. To depend on. To turn out, to move from its place, as a bone. #2. To bend outward; to project. #3. To rise from bed; also, to come abroad. To turn over, to turn from side to side; to roll; to tumble. #2. To change sides or parties. To turn to, to be directed; as, the needle turns to the magnetic pole. To turn under, to bend or be folded downward. To turn up, to bend or be doubled upward.

TURN, v.t. [Sax. turnan, tyrnan; L. torno; Gr. τορνοω; Fr. tourner; Arm. turnein; It. torno, a wheel; L. turnus; torniare, to turn; tornare, to return; torneare, tornire, to turn, to fence round, to tilt; torniamento, tournament; Sp. torno, tornear; G. turnier, a tilt; Sw. tornera, to run tilt; Dan. turnerer; W. twrn, turn, from tur, a turning; Gaelic, turna, a spinning wheel; turnoir, a turner. This is probably a derivative verb from the root of Ar. دَارَ daura, to turn. Class Dr, No. 3, and see No 15, 13, 18, 38.]

  1. To cause to move in a circular course; as, to turn a wheel; to turn a spindle; to turn the body.
  2. To change or shift sides; to put the upper side downward, or one side in the place of the other. It is said a hen turns her eggs often when sitting.
  3. To alter, as a position. Expert / When to advance, or stand, or turn the sway of battle. Milton.
  4. To cause to preponderate; to change the state of a balance; as, to turn the scale. Dryden.
  5. To bring the inside out; as, to turn a coat.
  6. To alter, as the posture of the body, or direction of the look. The monarch turns him to his royal guest. Pope.
  7. To form on a lathe; to make round.
  8. To form; to shape; used in the participle; as, a body finely turned. His limbs now turn'd. Pope.
  9. To change; to transform; as, to turn evil to good; to turn goods into money. Impatience turns an ague into a fever. Taylor. I pray thee, turn the counsel of Ahithophel into foolishness. 2 Sam. xv.
  10. To metamorphose; as, to turn a worm into a winged insect.
  11. To alter or change, as color; as, to turn green to blue.
  12. To change or alter in any manner; to vary. Shak.
  13. To translate; as, to turn Greek into English. Who turns a Persian tale for half a crown. Pope.
  14. To change, as the manner of writing; as, to turn prose into verse.
  15. To change, as from one opinion or party to another; as to turn one from a tory to a whig; to turn a Mohammedan or a pagan to a Christian.
  16. To change in regard to inclination or temper. Turn thee to me, and have mercy on me. Ps. xxv.
  17. To change or alter from one purpose or effect to another. God will make these evils the occasion of greater good, by turning them to our advantage. Tillotson.
  18. To transfer. Therefore he slew him, and turned the kingdom to David. 1 Chron. x.
  19. To cause to nauseate or lothe; as, to turn the stomach.
  20. To make giddy. Eastern priests in giddy circles run, / And turn their heads to imitate the sun. Pope.
  21. To infatuate; to make mad, wild or enthusiastic; as, to turn the brain. Addison.
  22. To change direction to or from any point; as, to turn the eyes to the heavens; to turn the eyes from a disgusting spectacle.
  23. To direct by a change to a certain purpose or object; to direct, as the inclination, thoughts or mind. I have turned my mind to the subject. My thoughts are turn'd on peace. Addison.
  24. To revolve; to agitate in the mind. Turn those ideas about in your mind.
  25. To bend from a perpendicular direction; as, to turn the edge of an instrument.
  26. To move from a direct course or strait line; to cause to deviate; as, to turn a horse from the road, or a ship from her course.
  27. To apply by a change of use. When the passage is open, land will be turned most to cattle. Temple.
  28. To reverse. The Lord thy God will turn thy captivity, and have compassion on thee. Deut. xxx.
  29. To keep passing and changing in the course of trade; as, to turn money or stock two or three times in the year.
  30. To adapt the mind; chiefly in the participle. He was perfectly well turned for trade. Addison.
  31. To make acid; to sour; as, to turn cider or wine; to turn milk.
  32. To persuade to renounce an opinion; to dissuade from a purpose, or cause to change sides. You can not turn a firm man. To turn aside, to avert. To turn away, to dismiss from service; to discard; as, to turn away a servant. #2. To avert; as, to turn away wrath or evil. To turn back, to return; as, to turn back goods to the seller. [Little used.] Shak. To turn down, to fold or double down. To turn in, to fold or double; as, to turn in the edge of cloth. To turn off, to dismiss contemptuously; as, to turn off a sycophant or parasite. #2. To give over; to resign. We are not so wholly turned off from that reversion. #3. To divert; to deflect; as, to turn off the thoughts from serious subjects. To be turned of, to be advanced beyond; as, to be turned of sixty six. To turn out, to drive out; to expel; as, to turn a family out of doors, or out of the house. #2. To put to pasture; as cattle or horses. To turn over, to change sides; to roll over. #2. To transfer; as, to turn over a business to another hand. #3. To open and examine one leaf after another; as, to turn over a concordance. Swift. #4. To overset. To turn to, to have recourse to. Helvetius' tables may be turned to on all occasions. Locke. To turn upon, to retort; to throw back; as, to turn the arguments of an opponent upon himself. Atterbury. To turn the back, to flee; to retreat. Exod. xxiii. To turn the back upon, to quit with contempt; to forsake. To turn the die or dice, to change fortune.

TURN'-BENCH, n. [turn and bench.]

A kind of iron lathe. Moxon.

TURN'-COAT, n. [turn and coat.]

One who forsakes his party or principles. Shak.

TURN'ED, pp.

Moved in a circle; changed.

TUR'NEP, n. [a compound of tur, round, and Sax. næpe, L. napus, a turnep.]

Two bulbous roots or plants, Brassica rapa and Brassica campestris, distinct species, both of great value for food.