Dictionary: ROUGH'EN-ING – ROUND

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Making rough.

ROUGH-FOOT-ED, a. [ruf'-footed.]

Feather-footed; as, a rough-fooled dove. Sherwood.

ROUGH-HEW, v.t. [ruf'-hew. rough and hew.]

  1. To hew coarsely without smoothing; as, to rough-hew timber.
  2. To give the first form or shape to a thing. There's a divinity that shapes our ends, / Rough-hew them how we will. Shak.

ROUGH-HEWN, pp. [or adj.; ruf'-hewn.]

  1. Hewn coarsely without smoothing.
  2. Rugged; unpolished; of coarse manners; rude. A rough-hewn seaman. Bacon.
  3. Unpolished; not nicely finished. Howell.

ROUGH-INGS, n. [ruf'ings.]

Grass after mowing or reaping. [Local.]


Having rough leaves.

ROUGH-LY, adv. [ruf'ly.]

  1. With uneven surface; with asperities on the surface.
  2. Harshly; uncivilly; rudely; as, to be treated roughly.
  3. Severely; without tenderness; as, to blame too roughly. Dryden.
  4. Austerely to the taste.
  5. Boisterously; tempestuously.
  6. Harshly to the ear.
  7. Violently; not gently.

ROUGH-NESS, n. [ruf'ness.]

  1. Unevenness of surface, occasioned by small prominences; asperity of surface; as, the roughness of a board, of a floor, or of a rock.
  2. Austereness to the taste; as, the roughness of sloes. Brown.
  3. Taste of astringency. Spectator.
  4. Harshness to the ear; as, the roughness of sounds. Swift.
  5. Ruggedness of temper; harshness; austerity. Addison.
  6. Coarseness of manners or behavior; rudeness. Severity breedeth fear; but roughness breedeth hate. Bacon.
  7. Want of delicacy or refinement; as, military roughness.
  8. Severity; harshness or violence of discipline.
  9. Violence of operation in medicines.
  10. Unpolished or unfinished state; as, the roughness of a gem or a draught.
  11. Inelegance of dress or appearance.
  12. Tempestuousness; boisterousness; as of winds or weather.
  13. Violent agitation by wind; as, the roughness of the sea in a storm.
  14. Coarseness of features.

ROUGH-RI-DER, n. [ruf'-rider.]

One who breaks horses.

ROUGH-SHOD, a. [ruf'-shod.]

Shod with shoes armed with points; as, a rough-shod horse. [This word is not generally used in America. In New England, instead of rough- shod, calked is used.]

ROUGHT, v. [for Raught; pret. of Reach. Obs.]


ROUGH-WORK, v.t. [ruf'-work. rough and work.]

To work over coarsely, without regard to nicety, smoothness or finish. Moxon.

ROUGH-WROUGHT, a. [ruf'-raut.]

Wrought or done coarsely.

ROU-LEAU, n. [roolo'; Fr.]

A little roll; a roll of guineas in paper. Pope.

ROUN, v.i. [G. raunen; Sax. runian, from run, runa, mystery, whence runic.]

To whisper. [Obs.] Gower.

ROUN, v.t.

To address in a whisper. [Obs.] Bret.

ROUNCE, n. [rouns'.]

The handle of a printing press.

ROUN'CE-VAL, n. [from Sp. Roncesvalles, a town at the foot of the Pyrenees.]

A variety of pea, so called. Tusser.

ROUND, a. [Fr. rond; It. Sp. and Port. ronda, a round; Arm. roundt; G. Dan. and Sw. rund; D. rond. Qu. W. crwn, Ir. cruin, Arm. cren.]

  1. Cylindrical; circular; spherical or globular. Round is applicable to a cylinder as well as to a globe or sphere. We say, the barrel of a musket is round; a ball is round; a circle is round. 2 Full; large; as, a round sum or price. Addison.
  2. Full; smooth; flowing; not defective or abrupt. In his satires, Horace is quick, round and pleasant. Peacham. His style, though round and comprehensive. Fell.
  3. Plain; open; candid; fair. Round dealing is the honor of man's nature. Bacon. Let her be round with him. Shak.
  4. Full; quick; brisk; as, a round trot. Addison.
  5. Full; plump; bold; positive; as, a round assertion. A round number, is a number that ends with a cipher, and may be divided by 10 without a remainder; a complete or full number. It is remarkable that the W. cant, a hundred, the L. centum, and Sax. hund, signify properly a circle, and this use of round may have originated in a like idea.

ROUND, adv.

  1. On all sides. Thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round. Luke xix.
  2. Circularly; in a circular form; as, a wheel turns round.
  3. From one side or party to another; as, to come or turn round. Hence these expressions signify to change sides or opinions.
  4. Not in a direct line; by a course longer than the direct course. The shortest course is not the best; let us go round. All round, in common speech, denotes over the whole place, or in every direction. Round about is tautological.


  1. A circle; a circular thing, or a circle in motion. With rounds of waxen tapers on their heads. Shak. Knit your hands, and beat the ground / In a light fantastic round. Milton.
  2. Action or performance in a circle, or passing through a series of hands or things, and coming to the point of beginning; or the time of such action. Women to cards may be compared; we play / A round or two; when used, we throw away. Granville. The feast was serv'd; the bowl was crown'd; / To the king's pleasure went the mirthful round. Prior. So we say, a round of labors or duties. We run the daily round. Addison.
  3. Rotation in office; succession in vicissitude. Holyday.
  4. A rundle; the step of a ladder. All the rounds like Jacob's ladder rise. Dryden.
  5. A walk performed by a guard or an officer round the rampart of a garrison, or among sentinels, to see that the sentinels are faithful and all things safe. Hence the officer and men who perform this duty are called the rounds. Encyc.
  6. A dance; a sons; a roundelay, or a species of fugue. Davies.
  7. A general discharge of fire-arms by a body of troops, in which each soldier fires once. In volleys, it is usual for a company or regiment to fire three rounds. A round of cartridges and balls, one cartridge to each man; as, to supply a regiment with a single round or with twelve rounds of cartridges. A round of beef, a cut of the thigh through and across the bone.

ROUND, prep.

  1. On every side of; as, the people stood round him; the sun sheds light round the earth. In this sense, around is much used, and all is often used to modify the word. They stood all round or around him.
  2. About; in a circular course, or in all parts; as, to go round the city. He led his guest round his fields and garden. He wanders round the world.
  3. Circularly; about; as, to wind a cable round the windlass. To come or get round one, in popular language, is to gain advantage over one by flattery or deception; to circumvent.

ROUND, v.i.1

  1. To grow or become round. The queen, your mother, rounds space. Shak.
  2. To go round, as a guard. They nightly rounding walk. Milton. To round to, in sailing, is to turn the head of the ship toward the wind.

ROUND, v.i.2 [a corruption of roun; Sax. runian; G. raunen.]

To whisper; as, to round in the ear. [Obs.] Bacon.

ROUND, v.t.

  1. To make circular, spherical or cylindrical; as, to round a silver coin; to round the edges of any thing. Worms with many feet, that round themselves into balls, are bred chiefly under logs of timber. Bacon.
  2. To surround; to encircle; to encompass. Th' inclusive verge / Of golden metal that must round my brow. Shak. Our little life is rounded with a sleep. Shak.
  3. To form to the arch or figure of the section of a circle. The figures on our modern medals are raised and rounded to very great perfection. Addison.
  4. To move about any thing; as, the sun, in polar regions, rounds the horizon. Milton.
  5. To make full, smooth and flowing; as, to round periods in writing. Swift. To round in, among seamen, to pull upon a slack rope, which passes through one or more blocks in a direction nearly horizontal. Mar. Dict.