Dictionary: ROT'TEN-LY – ROUGH'EN-ED

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ROT'TEN-LY, adv.

Putridly; defectively; fetidly.


State of being decayed or putrid; cariousness; putrefaction; unsoundness.


A soft stone or mineral, called also Tripoli, terra Tripolitann, from the country from which it was formerly brought. It is used in all sorts of finer grinding and polishing in the arts, and for cleaning furniture of metallic substances. The rotten-stone of Derbyshire, in England, is a Tripoli mixed with calcarious earth. Nicholson. Encyc.

ROT'TING, ppr.

Making putrid; causing to decompose.

RO-TUND', a. [L. rotundus, probably formed on rota, a wheel, as jocundus on jocus.]

  1. Round; circular; spherical. Addison.
  2. In botany, circumscribed by one unbroken curve, or without angles; as, a rotund leaf. Linnæus.

RO-TUND'A, n. [It. rotondo, round.]

A round building; any building that is round both on the outside and inside. The most celebtated edifice of this kind is the Pantheon at Rome. Encyc.

RO-TUND-I-FO'LI-OUS, a. [L. rotundus, round, and folium, a leaf.]

Having round leaves.


Rotundness; sphericity; circularity; as, the rotundity of a globe. Bentley.

ROU'BLE, n. [See RUBLE.]

ROU-COU, n. [roo'coo; originally written Urucu.]

The dried pulp which invests the seeds within the seed-vessel of Bixa orellana, a shrub eight or ten feet high, growing in South America. A substance used in dyeing; the same as anotta.

ROU-E', n. [rooa'; Fr.]

In the fashionable world, one devoted to a life of sensual pleasure.

ROUGE, a. [roozh; Fr.]

Red. Davies.

ROUGE, n. [roozh.]

Red paint; a substance used for painting the cheeks.

ROUGE, v.i. [supra.]

To paint the face, or rather the cheeks.

ROUGE, v.t. [supra.]

To paint, or tinge with red paint.

ROUG-ED, pp.

Tinged with red paint, as the face.

ROUGH, a. [ruf; Sax. hreog, hreoh, hrug, reoh, rug, ruh, href, hreof; D. ruig, rough, shaggy, whence our rug, rugged; G. rauh, rough, and rauch, hoarse, L. raucus, It. rauco; Sw. rugg, entangled hair; ruggig, rugged, shaggy; Dan. rog, rug, rye; W. crec and cryg, rough, rugged, hoarse, curling, and crecian, to creak, to scream, Eng. shriek; creg, hoarse, from cryg, or the same word varied. Cryg is from rhyg, Eng. rye, that is, rough; (crwca, crooked, is probably from the same source;) Sax. raca, hraca, a cough; L. ruga, a wrinkle; W. rhoçi, to grunt or growl; rhwc, what is rough, irregular, a grunt; rhwçiaw, to grunt; rhuwc, a rug, a rough garment, an exterior coat; rhuc, a coat, husk or shell; rhwnc, a snoring, snorting, or rattling noise. The latter is probably from the same root, from roughness, and this is the Gr. ῥεγχω, to snore; Ann. rochat or dirochat, to snore; diroch, snoring. The Welsh unites rough with creak, shriek; and shrug is formed on the root of L. ruga, a wrinkle, a ridge. See Ridge. The primary sense is to stretch or strain; but applied to roughness or wrinkling, it is to draw or contract, a straining together.]

  1. Having inequalities, small ridges or points on the surface; not smooth or plane; as, a rough board; a rough stone; rough cloth.
  2. Stony; abounding with stones and stumps; as, rough land; or simply with stones; as, a rough road.
  3. Not wrought or polished; as, a rough diamond.
  4. Thrown into huge waves; violently agitated; as, a rough sea.
  5. Tempestuous; stormy; boisterous; as, rough weather.
  6. Austere to the taste; harsh; as, rough wine.
  7. Harsh to the ear; grating; jarring; unharmonious; as, rough sounds; rough number. Pope.
  8. Rugged of temper; severe; austere; rude; not mild or courteous. A fiend, a fury, pitiless and rough. Shak.
  9. Coarse in manners; rude. A surly boatman, rough as seas and wind. Prior.
  10. Harsh; violent; not easy; as, a rough remedy. Clarendon.
  11. Harsh; severe; uncivil; as, rough usage. Locke.
  12. Hard featured; not delicate; as, a rough visage. Dryden.
  13. Terrible; dreadful. On the rough edge of battle, are it join'd, / Satan advanc'd. Milton.
  14. Rugged; disordered in appearance; coarse. Rough from the tossing surge Ulysses moves. Pope.
  15. Hairy; shaggy; covered with hairs, bristles and the like.

ROUGH-CAST, n. [ruf'-cast.]

  1. A rude model; the form of a thing in its first rudiments; unfinished. Digby.
  2. A plaster with a mixture of shells or pebbles, used for covering buildings.

ROUGH-CAST, v.t. [ruf'-cast. rough and cast.]

  1. To form in its first rudiments, without revision, correction and polish. Dryden.
  2. To mold without nicety or elegance, or to form with asperities. Cleaveland.
  3. To cover with a mixture of plaster and shells or pebbles; as, to rough-cast a building.

ROUGH-DRAUGHT, n. [ruf'-draft.]

A draught in its rudiments; a draught not perfected; a sketch. Dryden.

ROUGH-DRAW, v.t. [ruf'-draw.]

To draw or delineate coarsely. Dryden.

ROUGH-DRAWN, pp. [ruf'-drawn.]

Coarsely drawn.

ROUGH-EN, v.i. [ruf'n.]

To grow or become rough. Thomson.

ROUGH-EN, v.t. [ruf'n. from rough.]

To make rough. Swift.


Made or become rough.