Dictionary: S – SA'BI-AN-ISM

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THE nineteenth letter of the English Alphabet, is a sibilant articulation, and numbered among the semivowels. It represents the hissing made by driving the breath between the end of the tongue and the roof of the mouth, just above the upper teeth. It has two uses; one to express a mere hissing, as in sabbath, sack, sin, this, thus; the other a vocal hissing, precisely like that of z, as in muse, wise, pronounced muze, wize. It generally has its hissing sound at the beginning of all proper English words, but in the middle and end of words, its sound is to be known only by usage. In a few words it is silent, as in isle and viscount. In abbreviations, S. stands for societas, society, or socius, fellow; as, F. R. S. fellow of the Royal Society. In medical prescriptions, S. A. signifies secundum artem, according to the rules of art. In the notes of the ancients, S. stands for Sextus; Sp. for Spurius; S. C. for senatus consultum; S. P. Q. R. for senatus populusque Romanus; S. S. S. for stratum super stratum, one layer above another alternately; S. V. B. E. E. Q. V. for si vales, bene est, ego quoque valeo. As a numeral, S. denoted seven. In the Italian music, S. signifies solo. In books of navigation and in common usage, S. stands for south; S. E. for south-east; S. W. for south-west; S. S. E. for south-south-east; S. S. W. for south-south-west, &c.


SAB'A-OTH, n. [Heb. צבאות, armies, from צבא, to assemble, to fight. The primary sense is to drive, to urge or crowd.]

Armies; a word used, Rom. ix. 29, James v. 4, “the Lord of Sabaoth.”


Pertaining to those who keep Saturday, or the seventh day of the week as the sabbath. – Mountagu.

SAB-BA-TA'RI-AN, n. [from sabbath.]

One who observes the seventh day of the week as the sabbath, instead of the first. A sect of baptists are called sabbatarians. They maintain that the Jewish sabbath has not been abrogated. – Encyc.


The tenets of sabbatarians. – Bp. Ward.

SAB'BATH, n. [Heb. שבת, to cease, to rest; as a noun, cessation, rest, L. sabbatum; Ar. سَبَتَ sabata.]

  1. The day which God appointed to be observed by the Jews as a day of rest from all secular labor or employments, and to be kept holy and consecrated to his service and worship. This was originally the seventh day of the week, the day on which God rested from the work of creation; and this day is still observed by the Jews and some Christians, as the sabbath. But the Christian church very early begun and still continue to observe the first day of the week, in commemoration of the resurrection of Christ on that day, by which the work of redemption was completed. Hence it is often called the Lord's day. The heathen nations in the north of Europe dedicated this day to the sun, and hence their Christian descendants continue to call the day Sunday. But in the United States, Christians have to a great extent discarded the heathen name, and adopted the Jewish name sabbath. Sabbath is not strictly synonymous with sunday. Sunday is the mere name of the day; sabbath is the name of the institution. Sunday is the sabbath of Christians; saturday is the sabbath of the Jews.
  2. Intermission of pain or sorrow; time of rest. Peaceful sleep out the sabbath of the tomb. – Pope.
  3. The sabbatical year among the Israelites. – Lev. xxv.

SAB'BATH-BREAK-ER, n. [sabbath and break.]

One who profanes the sabbath by violating the laws of God or man which enjoin the religious observance of that day.


A profanation of the sabbath by violating the injunction of the fourth commandment, or the municipal laws of a state which require the observance of that day as holy time. All unnecessary secular labor, visiting, traveling, sports, amusements and the like are considered as sabbath-breaking.


Without intermission of labor. – Bacon.

SAB-BAT'IC, or SAB-BAT'IC-AL, a. [Fr. sabbatique; L. sabbaticus.]

  1. Pertaining to the sabbath.
  2. Resembling the sabbath; enjoying or bringing an intermission of labor. – Gregory. Sabbatical year, in the Jewish economy, was every seventh year, in which the Israelites were commanded to suffer their fields and vineyards to rest, or lie without tillage, and the year next following every seventh sabbatical year in succession, that is, every fiftieth year, was the jubilee, which was also a year of rest to the lands, and a year of redemption or release. – Lev. xxv.


Rest; intermission of labor.

SA-BE'AN, n. [See SABIAN.]


The same as Sabianism. – D'Anville.


Pertaining to the heresy of Sabellius.


A follower of Sabellius, a philosopher of Egypt in the third century, who openly taught that there is one person only in the Godhead, and that the Word and Holy Spirit are only virtues, emanations or functions of the Deity. – Encyc.


The doctrines or tenets of Sabellius. – Barrow.

SA'BER, n. [Fr. sabre; Arm. sabrenn, seiabla; Sp. sable; D. sabel; G. säbel. Qu. Ar. سَبَّ sabba, to cut.]

A sword or cimiter with a broad and heavy blade, thick at the back, and a little falcated or hooked at the point; a falchion. – Encyc.

SA'BER, v.t.

To strike, cut or kill with a saber. A small party was surprised at night and almost every man sabered.

SA'BER-ED, pp.

Struck or killed with a saber.

SA'BER-ING, ppr.

Striking or killing with a saber.

SA'BI-AN, a. [Heb. צבא, an army or host.]

The Sabian worship or religion consisted in the worship of the sun and other heavenly bodies. – Encyc.

SA'BI-AN, or SA-BE'AN, a.

Pertaining to Saba, in Arabia, celebrated for producing aromatic plants.

SA'BI-AN, n.

A worshiper of the sun.


That species of idolatry which consisted in worshiping the sun, moon and stars. This idolatry existed in Chaldea or Persia at an early period of the world, and was propagated by the inhabitants who migrated westward into Europe, and continued among our ancestors till they embraced the Christian religion.