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Like sulphur; containing sulphur; also, designating an acid formed by one equivalent of sulphur combined with two equivalents of oxygen. This is called sulphurous acid.


A plant, hog's fennel, of the genus Peucedanum.


Partaking of sulphur; having the qualities of sulphur.

SUL'TAN, n. [Qu. Ch. Syr. and Heb. שלט, to rule.]

An appellation given to the emperor of the Turks, denoting ruler or commander.


The queen of a sultan; the empress of the Turks. – Cleaveland.


A plant, a species of Centaurea.


An eastern empire; the dominions of a sultan. – Bacon.


The office or state of a sultan.

SUL'TRI-NESS, n. [from sultry.]

The state of being sultry; heat with a moist or close air.

SUL'TRY, a. [G. schwül, sultry; Sax. swolath, swole; heat, G. schwüle. See Swelter.]

  1. Very hot, burning and oppressive; as, Libya's sultry deserts. – Addison.
  2. Very hot and moist, or hot, close, stagnant and unelastic; as air or the atmosphere. A sultry air is usually enfeebling and oppressive to the human body. Such as born beneath the burning sky / And sultry sun, betwixt the tropics lie. – Dryden.

SUM, n. [Fr. somme; G. summe; D. som; Dan. sum; Sw. and L. summa, a sum; Sax. somed, L. simul, together; Sax. somnian, to assemble. These words may be from the root of Ch. פום som, Syr. ܣܡ, Heb. שום, to set or place.]

  1. The aggregate of two or more numbers, magnitudes, quantities or particulars; the amount or whole of any number of individuals or particulars added. The sum of 5 and 7 is 12. How precious are thy thoughts to me, O God! how great is the sum of them! – Ps. cxxxix. Take the sum of all the congregation. – Num. i. [Sum is now applied more generally to numbers, and number to persons.]
  2. A quantity of money or currency; any amount indefinitely. I sent him a sum of money, a small sum, or a large sum. I received a large sum in bank notes.
  3. Compendium; abridgment; the amount; the substance. This is the sum of all the evidence in the case. This is the arm and substance of all his objections. The sum of all I have said is this. The phrase, in sum, is obsolete or nearly so. In sum, the Gospel considered as a law, prescribes every virtue to our conduct, and forbids every sin. – Rogers.
  4. Highth; completion. Thus have I told thee all my state, and brought / My story to the sum of earthly bliss. – Milton.

SUM, v.t.

  1. To add particulars into one whole; to collect two or more particular numbers into one number; to cast up; usually followed by up, but it is superfluous. Custom enables a man to sum up a long column of figures with surprising facility and correctness. The hour doth rather sum up the moment, than divide the day. – Bacon.
  2. To bring or collect into a small compass; to comprise in a few words; to condense. He summed up his arguments at the close of his speech, with great force and effect. “Go to the ant, thou sluggard,” in few words, sums up the moral of this fable. – L'Estrange.
  3. In falconry, to have feathers full grown. With prosperous wing full summ'd. [ Unusual.] – Milton.

SU-MAC, n. [shu'mak; Fr. sumach; G. id.; sumak; Ar. and Pers. سُمَاقْ sumak.]

A plant or shrub of the genus Rhus, of many species; some of which are used in tanning; some in dyeing; and some in medicine.


Not to be computed; of which the amount can not be ascertained. The sumless treasure of exhausted mines. – Pope.

SUM'MA-RI-LY, adv. [from summary.]

  1. In a summary manner; briefly; concisely; in a narrow compass or in few words. The Lord's Prayer teaches us summarily the things we are to ask for.
  2. In a short way or method. When the parties proceed summarily, and they choose the ordinary way of proceeding, the cause is made plenary. – Ayliffe.

SUM'MA-RY, a. [Fr. sommaire; from sum, or L. summa.]

Reduced into a narrow compass, or into few words; short; brief; concise; compendious; as, a summary statement of arguments or objections; a summary proceeding or process.


An abridged account; an abstract, abridgment or compendium, containing the sum or substance of a fuller account; as, the comprehensive summary of our duty to God in the first table of the law.


  1. The act of forming a sum or total amount.
  2. An aggregate.

SUM'MED, pp. [from sum.]

Collected into a total amount; fully grown, as feathers.

SUM'MER, n.1

One who casts up an account. – Sherwood.

SUM'MER, n.2 [Sax. sumer, sumor; G. and Dan. sommer; D. zomer; Sw. sommar; Ir. samh, the sun, and summer, and samhradh, summer.]

With us, the season of the year comprehended in the months June, July and August; during which time, the sun being north of the equator, shines more directly upon this part of the earth, which, together with the increased length of the days, renders this the hottest period of the year. In latitudes south of the equator, just the opposite takes place, or it is summer there when it is winter here. The entire year is also sometimes divided into summer and winter, the former signifying the warmer and the latter the colder part of the year. Indian Summer, in the United States, a period of warm weather late in autumn, when, it is said, the Indians go hunting to supply themselves with the flesh of wild animals for provisions in the winter.

SUM'MER, n.3 [Fr. somnier, a hair quilt, the sound-board of an organ, the winter and head of a printer's press, a large beam and a sumpter horse; W. sumer, that which supports or keeps together, a summer. From the latter explanation, we may infer that summer is from the root of sum.]

  1. A large stone, the first that is laid over columns and pilasters, beginning to make a cross vault; or a stone laid over a column, and hollowed to receive the first haunce of a platband. – Cyc.
  2. A large timber supported on two stone piers or posts, serving as a lintel to a door or window, &c. – Cyc.
  3. A large timber or beam laid as a central floor timber, inserted into the girders, and receiving the ends of the joists and supporting them. This timber is seen in old buildings in America and in France. In America, it is wholly laid aside. It is called in England summer-tree.

SUM'MER, v.i.

To pass the summer or warm season. The fowls shall summer upon them. – Is. xviii.

SUM'MER, v.t.

To keep warm. [Little used.] – Shak.


The undulating state of the air near the surface of the ground when heated. [Not used is America.]