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THOR-OUGH-WAX, n. [thur'ro-wax. thorough and wax.]

A plant of the genus Bupleurum. Lee.

THOR-OUGH-WORT, n. [thur'ro-wort.]

The popular name of a plant, the Eupatorium perfoliatum, a native of North America. It is medicinal.

THORP, n. [Sax. thorpe; D. dorp; G. dorf; Sw. and Dan. torp; W. trev; Gaelic, Ir. treabh; L. tribus.]

The word in Welsh signifies a dwelling place, a homestead, a hamlet, a town. When applied to a single house, it answers to the Sax. ham, a house, whence hamlet and home. In the Teutonic dialects, it denotes a village. The primary sense is probably a house, a habitation, from fixedness; hence a hamlet, a village, a tribe; as in rude ages the dwelling of the head of a family was soon surrounded by the houses of his children and descendants. In our language, it occurs now only in names of places and persons.

THOS, n.

An animal of the wolf kind, but larger than the common wolf. It is common in Surinam. It preys on poultry and water fowls. Cyc.

THOSE, pron. [s as z. plur. of That; as, those men; those temples. When those and these are used in reference to two things or collections of things, those refers to the first mentioned, as these does to the last mentioned. See These, and the example there given.]


Among the ancient Egyptians, the god of eloquence, and supposed to be the inventor of writing and philosophy. He corresponded to the Mercury of the Romans.

THOU, pron. [in the obj. Thee. Sax. thu; G. Sw. and Dan. du; L. Fr. It. Sp. Port. and Russ. tu; Sans. tuam. The nominative case is probably contracted, for in the oblique cases it is in Sw. and Dan. dig, in Goth. thuk, Sax. thec. So in Hindoo, tu in the nominative, makes in the dative, tuko; Gipsy, tu, tuke. In Russ. the verb is tukayu, to thou.]

The second personal pronoun, in the singular number; the pronoun which is used in addressing persons in the solemn style. Art thou he that should come? Matth. xi. I will fear no evil, for thou art with me. Ps. xxiii. Thou is used only in the solemn style, unless in very familiar language, and by the Quakers.

THOU, v.i.

To use thou and thee in discourse.

THOU, v.t.

To treat with familiarity. If thou thouest him some thrice, it shall not be amiss. Shak.

THOUGH, v.i. [tho; Sax. theah; Goth. thauh; G. doch; Sw. dock; D. and Dan. dog. This is the imperative of a verb; Ir. daighim, to give, D. dokken.]

  1. Grant; admit; allow. “If thy brother be waxen poor – thou shalt relieve him; yea, though he be a stranger.” Grant or admit the fact that he is a stranger, yet thou shalt relieve him. – Lev. xxv. Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him. – Job xiii. That is, grant or admit that he shall slay me, yet will I trust in him. Though hand join in hand, the wicked shall not be unpunished. – Prov. xi. That is, admit the fact that the wicked unite their strength, yet this will not save them from punishment. Not that I so affirm, though so it seem. – Milton. That is, grant that it seems so, yet I do not so affirm.
  2. Used with as. In the vine were three branches, and it was as though it budded. – Gen. xi. So we use as if; it was as if it budded; and if is gif, give. The appearance was like the real fact, if admitted or true.
  3. It is used in familiar language, at the end of a sentence. A good cause would do well though. – Dryden. This is generally or always elliptical, referring to some expression preceding or understood.
  4. It is compounded with all, in although, – which see.

THOUGHT, n. [thaut. primarily the passive participle of think, supra, Sax. theaht.]

  1. Properly, that which the mind thinks. Thought is either the act or operation of the mind, when attending to a particular subject or thing, or it is the idea consequent on that operation. We say, a man's thoughts are employed on government, on religion, on trade or arts, or his thoughts are employed on his dress or his means of living. By this we mean that the mind is directed to that particular subject or object; that is, according to the literal import of the verb think, the mind, the intellectual part of man, is set upon such an object, it holds it in view or contemplation, or it extends to it, it stretches to it. Thought can not be superadded to matter, so as in any sense to render it true that matter can become cogitative. – Dwight.
  2. Idea; conception. I wish to convey my thoughts to another person. I employ words that express my thoughts, so that he may have the same ideas; in this case, our thoughts will be alike.
  3. Fancy; conceit; something framed by the imagination. Thoughts come crowding in so fast upon me, that my only difficulty is to choose or reject. – Dryden.
  4. Reflection; particular consideration. Why do you keep alone? / Using those thoughts which should have died / With them they think on. – Shak.
  5. Opinion; judgment. Thus Bethel spoke, who always speaks his thoughts. – Pope.
  6. Meditation; serious consideration. Pride, of all others the most dangerous fault, / Proceeds from want of sense or want of thought. – Roscommon.
  7. Design; purpose. All their thoughts are against me for evil. – Ps. lvi. xxxiii. Jer. xxix.
  8. Silent contemplation. – Shak.
  9. Solicitude; care; concern. Hawis was put in trouble, and died with thought and anguish before his business came to an end. – Bacon.
  10. Inward reasoning; the workings of conscience. Their thoughts the meanwhile accusing or else excusing one another. – Rom. ii.
  11. A small degree or quantity; as, a thought longer; a thought better. [Not in use.] – Hooker. Sidney. To take thought, to be solicitous or anxious. – Matth. vi.

THOUGHT, pp. [and pret. of Think; pronounced thaut.]


  1. Full of thought; contemplative; employed in meditation; as, a man of thoughtful mind.
  2. Attentive; careful; having the mind directed to an object; as, thoughtful of gain. – Philips.
  3. Promoting serious thought; favorable to musing or meditation. War, horrid war, your thoughtful walks invades. – Pope.
  4. Anxious; solicitous. Around her crowd distrust and doubt and fear, / And thoughtful foresight, and tormenting care. Prior.


With thought or consideration; with solicitude.


  1. Deep meditation. Blackmore.
  2. Serious attention to spiritual concerns.
  3. Anxiety; solicitude.


  1. Heedless; careless; negligent. Thoughtless of the future. Rogers.
  2. Gay; dissipated.
  3. Stupid; dull. Thoughtless as monarch oaks that shade the plain. Dryden.


Without thought; carelessly; stupidly. Garth.


Want of thought; heedlessness; carelessness; inattention.

THOUGHT'SICK, a. [thought and sick.]

Uneasy with reflection. Shak.

THOU'SAND, a. [s as z; Sax. thusend; Goth. thusund; G. tausend; D. duizend; Sw. tusend; Dan. tusind.]

  1. Denoting the number of ten hundred.
  2. Proverbially, denoting a great number indefinitely. It is a thousand chances to one that you succeed.


The number of ten hundred. A thousand shall fall at thy side, and ten thousand at thy right hand. Ps. xci. Thousand is sometimes used plurally without the plural termination, as in the passage above, ten thousand; but it often takes the plural termination. In former times, how many thousands perished by famine!


Doubled a thousand times.


The ordinal of thousand; as, the thousandth part of a thing; also proverbially, very numerous.


The thousandth part of any thing; as, two thousandths of a tax.

THOWL, n. [or v. See THOLE.]